And other courts have already taken judicial notice of the existence of anti-Black racism in Canadian society. For example, in R v. Jackson ¶ 27 and 81-91, citing other decisions and the 2015 Civil and Political Wrongs Report, Nakatsuru J. recognized the legacy of colonialism, the role of slavery in Canada, exclusion and segregation in housing, schooling, employment and public places, systematic and overt racism in education, policing and the justice system and the overrepresentation of African Canadian children in the child welfare system.
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