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Alexi provides high-quality answers to complex legal questions in memo format for lawyers. Below you can see a collection of sample excerpts from just some of the thousands of research memos we produce.


Is it misconduct for a prosecutor to ask a defendant on cross-examination whether another witness is lying?


California, United States of America

Can an application for no fee status be denied if the underlying claim lacks merit?


British Columbia, Canada

How has the law of negligence been distinguished between negligence and negligence?


British Columbia, Canada

What are the implications of the case law in the context of civil liberties issues?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does a prisoner have a First Amendment right to speak out in a civil rights case?


MultiRegion, United States of America

In what circumstances will a defendant be able to argue that he killed his partner because he feared she would testify against him in a criminal proceeding?


California, United States of America

What is the test for a jury to convict a defendant of murder in a "special circumstance" where the accused was killed during a robbery and burglary?


California, United States of America

Is there any case law or case law relating to the municipality's conduct on title issues?


Ontario, Canada

What is the burden of establishing a defendant's innocence?


California, United States of America

In what circumstances have courts upheld a finding that a defendant waived his right to a private hearing?


California, United States of America

What is the effect of a district court's denial of a habeas claim on state procedural grounds de novo?


MultiRegion, United States of America

How have courts interpreted statutory references to the Penal Code?


California, United States of America

Does a defendant have liability to a police informant for the sale of methylamine under section 1118.1?


California, United States of America

What is the definition of second degree murder?


California, United States of America

How has the Fourteenth Amendment been interpreted in federal law?


California, United States of America

What is the test for dismissing an appeal from a nonappealable order?


California, United States of America

What is the current state of the law on murder in circumstances of duress?


Manitoba, Canada

Is a search of a bedroom without consent unreasonable?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for rescuing a plea bargain where a defendant is charged with possession of a concealed weapon in a vehicle?


California, United States of America

Does a prisoner have access to a mailbox in prison?


MultiRegion, United States of America

How have the courts treated contradictions in the testimony of an employment tribunal panel?


Canada (Federal), Canada

What is the test for obtaining an order of possession against a tenant who has been paying rent for more than 15 days?


Saskatchewan, Canada

What is the test for excluding evidence in a sexual assault case?


California, United States of America

What is the effect of police warning a defendant of an under-cover operation?


California, United States of America

How have courts interpreted the natural and probable consequences doctrine on a motion for habeas relief?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the limitation period for a claim for the imposition of a remedial constructive trust?


British Columbia, Canada

Does a defendant have a right to attorney-conducted, sequestered voir dire?


California, United States of America

Does a jury need to be instructed that an accomplice's testimony regarding the circumstances of a crime of previous crime must be viewed with caution?


California, United States of America

In what circumstances can a husband recover damages for the death of his wife?


Ontario, Canada

What is the test for assessing damages for a minimal impact collision?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for a reduction in support for an adult male?


Ontario, Canada

Does the standard of review apply to a claim of error arising from a failure to give an instruction on witness credibility?


California, United States of America

Can a motion to have the dismissal of a 1999 claim set aside under rule 52.01(3)?


Ontario, Canada

What is the meaning of the phrase "a right of any kind whatever"?


Canada (Federal), Canada

In what circumstances will a prosecutor be found to have improperly argued to the jury that the defense failed to produce the witness?


California, United States of America

What is the test for ineffective assistance of counsel?


California, United States of America

Is amplification of an affidavit sufficient to compel a judge to approve the affidavit?


British Columbia, Canada

How have courts interpreted the requirement that a defendant be considered a household member for probation purposes?


California, United States of America

What is the meaning of a writ of mandamus in the federal courts?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does a defense attorney's failure to request an alibi constitute ineffective assistance of counsel?


California, United States of America

What are the relevant elements of a first degree murder?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for determining whether a defendant is liable for causing the death of a plaintiff by careless driving?


California, United States of America

What is the test for "subjecting" another person to deprivation of a constitutional right?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does the Immigration Judge erred by finding that the testimony of the Tellos was incredible?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for determining whether there is sufficient circumstantial evidence to sustain a conviction for sexual assault?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the current state of the law on cross-examination of witnesses at trial?


California, United States of America

What is the test for "willfulness" in a charge of aiding and abetting a crime?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Is there any case law where a court erred in refusing to admit hearsay evidence?


California, United States of America

Can a Minister of Employment and Immigration be held responsible for the creation of a new federal employment policy?


Canada (Federal), Canada

Can an employee who falls asleep at work be allowed to continue to work?


California, United States of America

What is the spousal support entitlement in Canada?


British Columbia, Canada

On what basis is the evidence that was given to the officer at the time of the incident admissible?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the effect of a conditional admission of professional misconduct by a lawyer to a disciplinary hearing?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the case law on technical intermeddling?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for determining whether a pensioner has a valid claim to his retirement benefits?


California, United States of America

What is the test for determining the best interest of a parent in a custody dispute?


California, United States of America

Is domicile a factor in determining a person's citizenship?


Alberta, Canada

What is the test for an order directing the sale of a matrimonial home before trial?


Ontario, Canada

What is the test for reversal of a judgment in a personal injury case?


California, United States of America

Does a contract to negotiate terms of an agreement need to be an oral agreement?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for determining whether the evidence supports the finding of a jury?


California, United States of America

Does a provision in the Costs Decision for fees for a second counsel for second counsel preclude a non-lawyer such as the patent agent?


Canada (Federal), Canada

Does Section 4019 of the Criminal Code apply retroactively?


California, United States of America

What is the burden of establishing that a party is entitled to relief under section 473(b)?


California, United States of America

What is the current state of the law on Eighth Amendment deprivation?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What are some of the words used in defence of confessions?


Alberta, Canada

Does section 654 of the California Criminal Code apply to a defendant who committed several sex crimes on a single victim?


California, United States of America

What is the test for determining a parent's best interest in a child?


Alberta, Canada

What is the test for a motion to suppress evidence in a civil case?


California, United States of America

In what circumstances will the Court take a more deferential stance with respect to discretionary decisions of an academic institution concerning academic matters?


Ontario, Canada

What is the test for "buse of discretion" in the context of a motion for reduced sentence under Section 3582(c)(2)(B) of the Criminal Code?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for adopting a written proposal before a hearing of an administrative law judge?


California, United States of America

Does Zegzula need to be a tax expert to establish that he believes that dentistry is not subject to income tax laws?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for giving jury instructions in a personal injury case?


California, United States of America

Is the dismissal of the action against the City of Tucson without prejudice?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for avoiding a judicial-administrative conflict between a regulatory agency and the courts?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for unjust enrichment in common law?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for intervention as of right in a personal injury case?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What are the circumstances surrounding an allegation of sexual assault made against a former student of the University of Salford in November 2012?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for determining whether a doctor is liable for a patient’s medical malpractice?


Ontario, Canada

Is there a line of cases which have gone the opposite way?


British Columbia, Canada

Is it ineffective assistance of counsel to reopen the suppression hearing once the trial has begun?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the constitutional obligation of a prosecutor to produce evidence that supports the presumption of innocence?


MultiRegion, United States of America

When a police officer asks a minor to sit on the curb, without more than one step, does this constitute a detention?


California, United States of America

What is the test for reversal of a finding of error in a criminal case?


California, United States of America

What is the test for voluntary manslaughter in a motor vehicle accident?


California, United States of America

In what circumstances will the court allow the jury to convict appellant of murder under CALCRIM No. 400?


California, United States of America

What is the test for torturing-murder?


California, United States of America

What constitutes a crime of receiving stolen property?


California, United States of America

What are the implications of the new provisions of section 39.4(3) of the Criminal Code in relation to relocation of a residence?


Ontario, Canada

What is the severity of a federal prosecutor's misconduct in the context of misrepresentation of testimony from a grand jury?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does a post-verdict evidentiary hearing need to be held after a jury has been discharged?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for determining whether a sentence directed to run consecutively on several counts constitute a single judgment?


California, United States of America

Is a commercial lease a statutory authority for nuisance?


British Columbia, Canada

Can a judge of first instance erred in her exercise of the exercise of her first instance?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the standard of review for an arson case?


California, United States of America

Can a plaintiff amend their statement of claim to add a new cause of action?


Alberta, Canada

Is a non-lawyer prohibited from commencing, prosecuting or defending proceedings in any court on behalf of others regardless of whether the fee is charged?


British Columbia, Canada

How have courts applied the rule of majority fair value appraisals on appeal?


California, United States of America

What is the test for determining whether a drug can be used in a criminal case?


California, United States of America

What constitutes an intent to kill?


California, United States of America

What is the current penalty for possession of an offensive substance with intent to endanger life and cause injury to another person?


California, United States of America

What is the effect of exclusion of an applicant from a tenure committee?


Alberta, Canada

Is there a need for a sua sponte instruction on the limited purposes for which evidence of prior crimes is admissible at the penalty phase of a capital case?


California, United States of America

What is the probative value of uncharged sexual offense evidence in a sexual assault case?


California, United States of America

What are the implications of the California Supreme Court's recent decisions on same-sex marriage?


California, United States of America

What are the consequences of a sanction of dismissal in a medical malpractice case?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the current state of the law on perjury and providing materially false information to the judge?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does a driver who makes a right hand turn in violation of section 540 of the California Vehicle Code have a valid claim?


California, United States of America

What is the test for a motion to suppress a search?


California, United States of America

What is the test for a prison official to be liable under the Eighth Amendment for denying an inmate humane conditions of confinement?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Is there any case law or case law that supports the argument that the court should not be used as a venue for the debate of educational policy in the classroom?


Canada (Federal), Canada

Can goods be unmerchantable if there is no warning?


Nova Scotia, Canada

Can malice defeat the assertion of absolute privilege?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for improper use of the word "frivolous" in the context of Rule 11 violations?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does section 1237.5 of the Criminal Code apply to a challenge of a sentence imposed after a plea of guilty or no contest?


California, United States of America

What is the difference between breath tests taken at the scene of a motor vehicle accident and breath tests at the police station about an hour after the accident?


California, United States of America

Can a defendant appeal against his arson conviction for setting fire to vegetation that was not within the definition of forest land?


California, United States of America

Does the "rule of reason" test apply to review for abuse of power?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the applicable statute of limitation for medical malpractice?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the liquidated damages provision in a personal injury case?


"New York", United States of America

Can a defendant be physically restrained in the courtroom?


California, United States of America

Can the matter of cultural heritage value be determined exclusively under the Planning Act?


Ontario, Canada

What is the test for obtaining a warrant to search a person's home?


Ontario, Canada

What is the effect of a judge's role in plea bargaining with a defendant?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the burden of proving the will of a deceased person to his executor?


Ontario, Canada

What jurisdiction does the Court of Appeal have to set off two judgments?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the effect of punitive damages in motor vehicle accident cases?


California, United States of America

Is it ineffective assistance of counsel to advise defendant to plead no contest to multiple possession charges?


California, United States of America

What is the legal test for determining whether a defendant has a reasonable chance of a conviction of first degree murder?


California, United States of America

What is the test for determining whether there is a genetic match?


California, United States of America

What is the test for termination of access where the father has a history of violence and alcohol abuse?


Ontario, Canada

Does a defendant have to prove that he or she made a wilful false statement to a plaintiff?


British Columbia, Canada

Does a defendant have to notify the prosecution of an alibi before the prosecution can obtain discovery evidence relating to that alibi?


California, United States of America

Can a plaintiff compel repayment from a defendant of money he has paid voluntarily?


Saskatchewan, Canada

Does interest on prejudgment attorney fees accrue from the date of the original judgment or from date the award was entered on remand?


California, United States of America

What is the duty of a driver to turn on his hazard lights when there are no lights?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the discount rate for the purpose of determining the appropriate discount rate?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the effect of filing a Notice of Appeal before the Court of Appeal?


California, United States of America

What are the implications of a police officer's findings in a judicial review?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for a motion for reconsideration under section 1008?


California, United States of America

What is the test for a motor vehicle owner to be liable for damages caused by their vehicle accident?


"New York", United States of America

What is the test for making a threat under section 422, subdivision (a) of the California Criminal Code?


California, United States of America

Is a plea agreement that waives the right to file a petition under Section 2255 enforceable against an ineffective assistance of counsel claim?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for intervening in a motion?


Ontario, Canada

What is the test for claiming medical care against an individual defendant under the Fourteenth Amendment?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the cause of action for trespass on a private property?


British Columbia, Canada

Does appellant have a constitutional claim?


California, United States of America

Is a plaintiff entitled to claim damages from an insurer for bad faith?


California, United States of America

How have courts interpreted section 654 of the Criminal Code when a defendant is convicted of first degree robbery as an accomplice to an armed robber and possession of a firearm by felon?


California, United States of America

What is the test for establishing that a party to a property is entitled to a resulting trust?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for admitting an out-of-court statement?


Canada (Federal), Canada

What remedy does the court have to reduce the conviction of a defendant to a lesser charge?


California, United States of America

What is the Statue of Frauds?


Ontario, Canada

What is the justification defense in the context of sexual assault cases?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for corroborating evidence in a criminal case?


California, United States of America

Are there any cases where a young person is not able to pursue a career because they are not satisfied with their education?


British Columbia, Canada

Is there a duty of care to disclose the existence of a latent defect in a sump pump?


British Columbia, Canada

Can a motion for leave to appeal be appealed?


"New York", United States of America

What is the effect of section 1111 of the California Criminal Code when a defendant is accused of a crime committed by an accomplice who is likely to have self-serving motives?


California, United States of America

What is the test for establishing that a final policymaking authority in the area of decision?


MultiRegion, United States of America

In what circumstances will the court refuse to rule on an affidavit that is not before the trial court?


California, United States of America

Is a motion for a mistrial a waiver?


California, United States of America

What is the test for conducting a search without a warrant?


California, United States of America

Is an attorney privileged to publish defamatory material in communications with a plaintiff?


California, United States of America

Is a master liable to his servant’s property for damage caused to the property of the servant?


Saskatchewan, Canada

What is the test for making a prima facie factual showing sufficient to sustain a favorable judgment?


California, United States of America

What is the test for credibility in a medical malpractice case?


Ontario, Canada

What is the test for meeting the four objectives of section 15.2(6) of the Divorce Act?


British Columbia, Canada

How have the courts interpreted the terms "custody" and "guardianship" in relation to custody?


British Columbia, Canada

What notice must be given to a complainant before a complaint is dismissed at the BC Human Rights Tribunal?


British Columbia, Canada

Can a juror no. 3 be excused from jury duty because of arthritis?


California, United States of America

Is there an insufficient basis to order a lump sum award?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the test for confidence in the profession?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the effect of estoppel effects on a plaintiff's attorney fees?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does filing a lawsuit in the face of an agreement to arbitrate constitute waiver?


California, United States of America

What is the test for reversal of a conviction based on the sufficiency of the evidence?


California, United States of America

What is the impact of invasive searches of the bodies of female prisoners by male prison guards?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does a strata have a duty of care to ensure work completed on the exterior of a residential strata does not damage the bedroom wall of SL4?


British Columbia, Canada

What constitutes felony murder in the first degree?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the legal test for deliberate indifference by a prison official in a case of medical malpractice?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Does a trial court have jurisdiction to continue to issue findings after a notice of appeal has been filed?


California, United States of America

In a motor vehicle accident, is an insured's life insurance policy enforceable when the insured dies?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Is a petition to be converted to an action?


British Columbia, Canada

Does a jury need to be instructed on the meaning of words "commonly understood by those familiar with the English language"?


California, United States of America

What is the test for a court of appeal to alter an award made by a judge at trial for delayed payment of damages to a plaintiff?


British Columbia, Canada

Does a police lab's failure to preserve a patient's blood sample violate title 17 regulations?


California, United States of America

Does the risk of tainting the trial irreparably outweigh the fact that the trial court informed the jury of appellant's rape and sexual assault convictions without knowing whether they would ever be introduced in the case?


MultiRegion, United States of America

Can a defendant seek to have the jury consider his mental disorders in combination with his intoxication when assessing his mental state at the time of the crime?


California, United States of America

How have courts dealt with challenges to procedures in civil litigation?


California, United States of America

Is a witness not an expert?


Ontario, Canada

Can a civil action be brought against a federal official for allegedly acting under color of federal law?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What is the test for determining whether a defendant has been found to have committed acts of insanity?


California, United States of America

In determining that the contents of the cigarette package was tobacco processed in the form of cigarettes, and in the absence of any evidence supporting that tobacco products contained in the cigarette box contained tobacco, does the prosecution need to call expert scientific evidence?


Ontario, Canada

Is remand to a different sentencing judge warranted?


MultiRegion, United States of America

What proof does the court need to establish that a child was not sexually molested by a series of sexual acts?


California, United States of America

What is the test for foreseeability in a medical malpractice case?


California, United States of America

Does a solicitor have authority to bind a client to the terms of settlement?


British Columbia, Canada

Is a retainer agreement for a client’s claim for damages arising from the accident enforceable?


British Columbia, Canada

What is the legal test for a plaintiff to amend their complaint?


California, United States of America